Dyslexia, Dyslexia Fonts, Oral Reading Fluency, Transparent Orthography

How to Cite



There are different approaches used to reduce reading skills deficits. One such approach, which belongs to the group of visual adaptations, is to change the font used in the texts. The main research goal is to assess the level of reading success in people with dyslexia (reading difficulties) by using a specialized Cyrillic font - Dyslexic FZF. The research was conducted on 24 persons with dyslexia from North Macedonia and obtained data about oral reading fluency and reading lists of meaningful and meaningless words with the Dyslexic FZF font and the font Times New Roman. The data of the two consecutive readings were compared. Results suggest that when using the new dyslexia typeface, Dyslexic FZF, participants were able to read more words per minute than with the Times New Roman font. A statistically significant difference in the results occurs in the errors made while reading.



Álvarez-Cañizo M, Suárez-Coalla P and Cuetos F (2015) The Role of Reading Fluency in Children’s Text Comprehension. Front. Psychol, 6, 1810. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01810

Aro M, Wimmer H. (2003). Learning to read: English in comparison to six more regular orthographies. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 621–635. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716403000316

Bachmann, C., Mengheri, L. (2018). Dyslexia and fonts: Is a Specific Font Useful? Brain Sciences, 8(5), 89. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8050089

Borleffs, E., Maassen, B.A.M., Lyytinen, H. & Zwarts, F. (2017). Measuring orthographic transparency and morphological-syllabic complexity in alphabetic orthographies: a narrative review Reading and Writing. 30(8), 1617-1638. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-017-9741-5

Brenard, M., Chaparro, B. S., Mills, M. M., & Halcomb, C. G. (2003). Comparing the effects of text size and format on the readability of computer-displayed Times New Roman and Arial text. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59: 823-835. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1071-5819(03)00121-6

British Dyslexia Association, New Technologies Committee (2014). Typefaces for dyslexia. Retrieved from http://bdatech.org/what-technology/typefaces-for-dyslexia/

Bruck, M. (1990). Word recognition skills of adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 26, 439–454. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.26.3.439

Christodoulou, J. A., Del Tufo, S. N., Lymberis, J., Saxler, P. K., Ghosh, S. S., Triantafyllou, C., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2014). Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia. PloS one, 9(7), e100552. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100552

de Leeuw, R. (2010). Special Font for Dyslexia? [Unpublished Master’s thesis]. University of Twente, the Netherlands.

Fraga González, G., Zarić, G., Tijms, J., Bonte, M., Blomert, L., & van der Molen, M. W. (2014). Brain-potential analysis of visual word recognition in dyslexics and typically reading children. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8, 474. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00474

International Literacy Association. (2018). Reading fluently does not mean reading fast [Literacy leadership brief]. Newark, DE: Author.

Karovska Ristovska, A., Filipovska, M. (2018). Fonts for Improvement of the Reading Abilities in Persons with Dyslexia. Annuaire of the Faculty of Philosophy, 71, 447-455.

Kim, Y. S., & Wagner, R. K. (2015). Text (Oral) Reading Fluency as a Construct in Reading Development: An Investigation of its Mediating Role for Children from Grades 1 to 4. Scientific studies of reading: the official journal of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, 19(3), 224–242. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2015.1007375

Kuster, S.M., van Weerdenburg, M., Gompel & Bosman, A.M.T. (2018). Dyslexie font does not benefit reading in children with or without dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia 68, 25–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-017-0154-6

Legge, G. E., & Bigelow, C. A. (2011). Does print size matter for reading? A review of findings from vision science and typography. Journal of Vision, 11(5), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1167/11.5.8

Marinus, E., Mostard, M., Segers, E., Schubert, T. M., Madelaine, A., & Wheldall, K. (2016). A special font for people with dyslexia: does it work and, if so, why? Dyslexia, 22(3), pp. 233-244. https://doi.org/10.1002/dys.1527

Miller-Shaul, S. (2005). The characteristics of young and adult dyslexic readers on reading and reading related cognitive tasks as compared to normal readers. Dyslexia, 11(2), 132–151. https://doi.org/10.1002/dys.290

National Institute of Child Health, and Human Development (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and its Implications for Reading Instruction: Reports of the Subgroups (NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Perea M, Gomez, P. (2012). Subtle increases in interletter spacing facilitate the encoding of words during normal reading. PLoS ONE 7(10): e47568. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047568

Pijpker, T. (2013). Reading performance of dyslexics with a special font and a colored background (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Ramsey, J. R. (2014). The effects of the font dyslexie on oral reading fluency skills in students grades 8 through 12 with and without reading disabilities (Order No. 1570532). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1640913346). Retrieved from https://search-proquest.com.mutex.gmu.edu/docview/1640913346?accountid=14541

Rello, L., & Baeza-Yates, R. (2013). Good fonts for dyslexia. In Proceedings of the 15th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility (ASSETS '13). ACM, New York, NY, USA, Article 14, 8 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/2513383.2513447

Spelbrink, N. (2012). Framing fonts. Eindhoven, the Netherlands: Lecturis publishing.

Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): what have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 2–40. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0021-9630.2003.00305.x

Wery, J. J. & Diliberto, J.A. (2017). The effect of a specialized dyslexia font, OpenDyslexic, on reading rate and accuracy. Annals of Dyslexia, 67(2), 114 – 127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-016-0127-1

Wolf, M., Katzir-Cohen, T. (2001). Reading fluency and its intervention. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 211–239. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532799XSSR0503_2

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Maja FILIPOVSKA, Goran AJDINSKI, Aleksandra KAROVSKA RISTOVSKA


Download data is not yet available.