Ellipsis in English and Albanian


Cohesion, Ellipsis, Substitution, Fiction, Non-Fiction, Nominal, Verbal, Clausal.

How to Cite

JAHJA, N. (2021). Ellipsis in English and Albanian. PRIZREN SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, 5(1), 118–124. https://doi.org/10.32936/pssj.v5i1.222


This research attempted to conduct an in-depth analysis of the text-forming elements based on the fact that cohesive devices are insufficiently treated in the Albanian language, although considerable research and publications have been made in other languages.


This study aims to bring evidence in recognizing, determining, and categorizing the structures of ellipsis and substitution which perform in English and Albanian. Comparing these important elements of grammatical cohesion in two languages will bring light upon the differences and similarities between the two languages. It will also show how frequently they are used in English and Albanian. Particularly, the aim is to show how these two mechanisms enable the avoidance of repetition, either by choosing other short words, phrases, and clauses or by removal of words, phrases, and clauses.


This study involved samples of fiction and non-fiction texts of English and Albanian language, consisting of two novels and two daily newspapers. The findings of the research indicate that in fiction texts, ellipsis is used more in the Albanian language rather than in English whereas substitution prevails more in English than Albanian. Ellipsis is used more in the Albanian language rather than in English in non-fiction texts too. Nevertheless, the frequency of substitution seems to be the same in both languages with a total of 4 items in English and 3 items in Albanian.



Akademia e shkencave. (2002). Gramatika e gjuhës shqipe 1 (2nd ed., Vol. 1). Tirane.

Academia e shkencave. (2002). Gramatika e gjuhës shqipe 2 (2nd ed., Vol. 2). Tiranë

Akpınar, K. (2013). Identifying Discourse Patterns: A Case Study with Turkish Foreign Language Learners. ELT Research Journal, 1 (4), 255-277. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/eltrj/issue/5476/74394

Azzouz, B. (2009). A discourse analysis of grammatical cohesion in student’s writing. A case study of second year students, Mentouri University Constantine (Master’s dissertation). Mentouri University-Constantine. http://archives.umc.edu.dz/bitstream/handle/123456789/11397/AZZ1086.pdf?sequence

Bosanac, S & Latin, D. (2008). Discourse analysis: spoken Language. University of Zagreb. https://www.academia.edu/636652/Discourse_Analysis_Spoken_Language_student_seminar_paper_

Brown, G & Yule, G. (1983). Discourse analysis. Cambridge University Press.

Carter, R & Carthy, M. (2006). Cambridge grammar of English (1 st ed.). Cambridge University Press. https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/33714575/McCarthy-Explorations_in_Corpus-Linguistics.pdf?1400225960=&response-content disposition=inline%3B+filename%3DExplorations_in_Corpus_Linguistics.pdf&Expires

Chomsky, N. (2014). The minimalist program. The MIT Press.

Coskun, E. (2011). Cohesion in compositions of Turkish and immigrant students. Journal Articles; Reports - Research, 11(2), 892–899. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ927382

Cota, L. (2013). Strukturat eliptike dhe roli i komponenteve gramatikor në përcaktimin e elipsës kontekstuale në gjuhët angleze dhe shqipe. (Elliptical structures and the role of grammatical components in determining contextual ellipses in English and Albanian). (Dissertation). University of Tirana. Albania. http://www.doktoratura.unitir.edu.al/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Doktoratura-Lutfije-Cota-Fakulteti-i-Gjuheve-te-Huaja-Departamenti-i-Gjuhes-Angleze.pdf

Crystal, D. (2019). The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.4000/lexis.4512

Dibra, V. (1999). Gjuhësi teksti. (Text linguistics). (1 st ed.). Tiranë: SHBLU.

Flowerdrew, J. & Mahlberg, M. (2009). Lexical cohesion and corpus linguistics (1st ed.). John Benjamin’s Publishing Company. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=kFZdJV4sq5AC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Flowerdew,+J.+%26+Mahlberg,+M.+(2009).+Lexical+cohesion+and+corpus+linguistics.+Amsterdam:+John+Benjamin.&ots=52Sf45xZKd&sig=6cJvr5xs10zeV6vJKnxusg4SUNU#v=onepage&q&f=false

Greenbaum, S. Quirk, R. (1993). A student’s grammar of English language (1 st ed.). Longman.

Halliday, M.A, & Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English (1 st ed.). England: Longman.

Hameed, H. (2008). Cohesion in texts: a discourse analysis of a new article in a magazine. Al faith journal. No.37. Diyala University. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328216143_Cohesion_in_TextsA_Discourse_Analysis_of_news_Article_in_a_Magazine

Hart, C. (2005). Doing your master dissertation (1 st ed.). SAGE publication.

Hazout, I. (1995) Comparative Ellipsis and logical form. Nat Lang Linguist Theory 13, 1–37. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00992777

Hee, Y. Na. (2011). Cohesive devices in CMC texts produced by American and Korean EFL writers. Linguistic Research 28(3), 743-771, 3, 1–10. http://isli.khu.ac.kr/journal/content/data/28_3/14.pdf

Jabeen, I. Mehmood, A. Iqbal, M. (2013). Ellipsis, reference, substitution as cohesive devices. Academic Research International, 4(6), 1–9. http://www.savap.org.pk/journals/ARInt./Vol.4(6)/2013(4.6-15).pdf

Leech, G. N. (1985). Principles of pragmatics. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=2uWXCwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Leech,+G.+(1989).+Principles+of+pragmatics:+Longman.&ots=KBkXthCoUq&sig=ImpCIsKA-mCI2S7le6GWZLUDZRw#v=onepage&q&f=false

Leech, G. N., & Svartvik, J. (1994). A communicative grammar of English. Longman Publishing Group.

Martin, J. R. (2015). Cohesion and texture. The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, 61-81. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118584194.ch3

Martinet, A. (2002). Elemente të gjuhësisë së përgjithshme. (Elements of general linguistics). (1st ed.). Dituria.

Merchant, J. (2001). The syntax of silence: Slucing, islands and the theory of ellipsis. Oxford University Press.

MU, I. (n.d). Cohesive devices in open and closed registers. http://is.muni.cz/th/271316/ff_m/Cohesive_Devices_in_Open_and_Closed_Registers_MT.pdf

Nariyama, S. (2004). Subject ellipsis in English. Journal of Pragmatics, 36(2), 237–264. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378216603000997

Nuhiu, V. (2002). English syntax. Univeristy of Prishtina.

Nunan, D. (1993). Introducing discourse analysis. Penguin Books.

Orwell, G. (2009). Animal Farm. Transaction Publishers.

Querol, M. (2003). Substitution as a cohesive device of grammatical cohesion in English narrative and its translation into Spanish. http://www.uji.es/bin/publ/edicions/jfi9/fang/5.pdf

Stërmilli, H. (2002). Sikur t’isha djalë. Letrat Publishing. Albania.

The Guardian. http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/ (2015).

Tra My, H. (n.d). An analysis of cohesive devices in reading texts in English 11. http://tainguyenso.vnu.edu.vn/jspui/bitstream/123456789/39481/1/TT_04051000567.pdf

Widdowson, H. G. (1978). Teaching language as communication. Oxford University Press.

Witte, S. P., & Faigley, L. (1981). Coherence, cohesion, and writing quality. College Composition and Communication, 32(2), 189. https://doi.org/10.2307/356693

Yule, G., & Widdowson, H. G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford University Press.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2021 Nesrin JAHJA


Download data is not yet available.