Do Older Indonesian with Chronic Disease Still Be Able to Engage in an Activity and Feel Happy?


Activity; Chronic Disease, Health, Happiness, Older People.

How to Cite

SULANDARI, S., PURNAMA, A. D., WIJAYANTI, M., HASTUTI, F. D., & RAIHANA, P. A. (2020). Do Older Indonesian with Chronic Disease Still Be Able to Engage in an Activity and Feel Happy?. PRIZREN SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, 4(2), 1–13.


This study aimed to understand what activities could be done by older Indonesian who are physically sick and how those activities can make them feel happy. It was a qualitative study conducted in the Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. A total of 6 older people aged >60 years and suffering from the chronic disease were selected for this study. The data were collected by an in-depth interview. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis with the help of the NVivo 12 QSR program. Older people with chronic disease were still able to be active in worship, socializing with the surrounding environment, working, doing the daily chores, and doing older people gymnastic. The benefit of staying engaged in the activity, including the ability to feel happy, be motivated to get a reward, exchange ideas, and share experience, help others, be calm, and have good health. This study emphasized the importance of being engaged in activities for older people to achieve happiness even though there had poor health status.


Amalia. (2017). Pengaruh persepsi kesehatan terhadap tingkat kebahagiaan pada lansia [Effect of health perception on happiness levels in the older people]. Journal Psikovidya, 21(2), 1689–1699.

Ambardini, R. L. (2009). Aktivitas fisik pada lanjut usia [Physical activity in the elderly]. Yogyakarta:UNY, 1–9.

Asadullah, M. N., & Chaudhury, N. (2012). Subjective well-being and relative poverty in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Economic Psychology, 33(5), 940–950.

Indonesian Central Bureau Statistics [BPS]. (2014). Statistik penduduk lanjut usia 2014 [The statistics of older people 2014]. Jakarta.

Bayani, A. A. (2014). The Relationship between religiosity and happiness among students in an Iranian University. Pertanika Journal of Social Science Humanities, 22(3), 709–716. Retrieved from

Bestari, B. K., & Wati, D. N. K. (2016). Penyakit kronis lebih dari satu menimbulkan peningkatan perasaan cemas pada lansia di Kecamatan Cibinong [More than one chronic disease causes an increase in anxiety in the elderly in Cibinong District]. Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia, 19(1), 49–54.

Bixter, M. T. (2015). Happiness, political orientation, and religiosity. Personality and Individual Differences, 72, 7–11.

Boylu, A., Ayfer, Gunay, & Gulay. (2017). Life satisfaction and quality of life among the elderly: moderating effect of activities of daily living. Turkish Journal of Geriatrics, 20(1), 61–69.

Cai, J., Zhang, L., Zhao, Y., & Coyte, P. C. (2018). Psychological mechanisms linking county-level income inequality to happiness in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(12).

Chei, C.-L., Lee, J. M.-L., Ma, S., & Malhotra, R. (2018). Happy older people live longer. Age and Ageing, 47(6), 860–866.

Chopik, W. J., & O’Brien, E. (2017). Happy you, healthy me? Having a happy partner is independently associated with better health in oneself. Health Psychology, 36(1), 21–30.

Cockerham, W. C., Hamby, B. W., & Oates, G. R. (2017). The Social determinants of chronic disease. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 52(1), S5–S12.

Demir, M., Jaafar, J., Bilyk, N., & Mohd Ariff, M. R. (2012). Social Skills, friendship and happiness: A Cross-cultural investigation. The Journal of Social Psychology, 152(3), 379–385.

Dharma, A. (2014). Bentuk dukungan keluarga pada lansia etnis Tionghoa di Kota Bandung [Form of family support for elderly ethnic Chinese in the city of Bandung]. Temu Ilmiah IPLBI [IPLBI Scientific Meeting].

Didino, D., Taran, E. A., Gorodetski, K., Melikyan, Z. A., Nikitina, S., & Gumennikov, I. (2017). Exploring predictors of life satisfaction and happiness among Siberian older adults living in Tomsk Region. European Journal of Ageing.

Diener, E. (2009). Subjective Well-being. In Diener E. (Ed). The science of well-being. the collected works of Ed Diener. New York: Springer.

Diener, E., Ng, W., Harter, J., & Arora, R. (2010). Wealth and happiness across the world: Material prosperity predicts life evaluation, whereas psychosocial prosperity predicts positive feeling. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(1), 52–61.

Erlangga, S. W. (2012). Subjektif well being pada lansia penghuni panti jompo [Subjective well being at the Older people occupants of nursing homes]. Universitas Gunadarma. Retrieved from

Flynn, M. G., Markofski, M. M., & Carrillo, A. E. (2019). Elevated inflammatory status and increased risk of chronic disease in chronological aging: Inflamm-aging or inflamm-inactivity? Aging and Disease, 10(1), 147.

Francis, P. (2014). Physical activities in elderly. In Benefits and barriers. Retrieved from _Purity.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Hongu, N., Gallaway, P. J., & Shimada, M. (2015). Physical activity for older adults : Tips for getting started and staying active. Retrieved from

Hori, M., & Kamo, Y. (2018). Gender differences in happiness: the effects of marriage, social roles, and social support in East Asia. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 13(4), 839–857.

Hsu, H., & Chang, W. (2015). Social connections and happiness among the elder population of Taiwan. 7863(September).

Ikasi, A., & Hasanah, O. (2014). Hubungan dukungan keluarga terhadap kesepian (lonelinnes) pada lansia [Relationship of family support against loneliness in the older people]. Jurnal Keperawatan Komunitas, 1(2), 1–7.

Indriana, Y. (2013). Gerontology & progeria. Yogyakarta. Pustaka Pelajar.

Indriana, Y., Kristiana, I. F., Sonda, A. A., & Intanirian, A. (2010). Tingkat stres lansia di panti wredha “Pucang Gading†Semarang [The stress level of the elderly in the "Pucang Gading" nursing home Semarang]. Jurnal Psikologi Undip, 8(2), 87–96.

Inglehart, R., Foa, R., Peterson, C., & Welzel, C. (2008). Perspectives on psychological science rising happiness: A global perspective (1981−2007). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(4), 264–285.

Jahja, Y. (2011). Psikologi Perkembangan [Developmental psychology]. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.

Jeon, S. W., Han, C., Lee, J., Lim, J., Jeong, H.-G., Park, M. H., … Steffens, D. C. (2016). Perspectives on the happiness of community-dwelling elderly in Korea. Psychiatry Investigation, 13(1), 50.

Kapikiran, S. (2016). Relationship between life satisfaction and loneliness in the elderly: Examining the mediator role of social support. Elderly Issues Research Journal, 9(1), 13–25.

Indonesian Ministry of Health. (2017). Analisis lansia di Indonesia. In Pusat data dan informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI [Analysis of the elderly in Indonesia. In Indonesian Ministry of Health data and information center]. Retrieved from lansia 2016.pdf%0A

Kim, J., Chun, S., Heo, J., Lee, S., & Han, A. (2016). Contribution of keisure-time physical activity on psychological benefits among elderly immigrants. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 11, 461–470.

Kim, J., Lee, S., Chun, S., Han, A., & Heo, J. (2016). The effects of leisure-time physical activity for optimism, life satisfaction, psychological well-being, and positive affect among older adults with loneliness. Annals of Leisure Research, 20(4), 406–415.

Kraja, F., Kraja, B., Mone, I., Harizi, I., Babameto, A., & Burazeri, A. (2016). Self-reported prevalence and risk factors of non-communicable diseases in the Albanian adult population. Medical Archives, 70(3), 208.

Lera-Lopez, F., Ollo-Lopez, A., & Santos, J. M. S. (2017). How does physical activity make you feel better ? The mediational role of perceived health. Applied Research Quality Life, 12(3), 511–531.

Lestari, M. D. (2017). Persahabatan: makna dan kontribusinya bagi kebahagiaan dan kesehatan lansia

[Friendship: its meaning and contribution to elderly people's happiness and health]. Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat, 4(1), 59–82.

Lobos, G., Lapo, M. del C., & Schnettler, B. (2016). In the choice between health and money, health comes first: an analysis of happiness among rural Chilean elderly. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 32(5), 1–12.

Lotfaliany, M., Bowe, S. J., Kowal, P., Orellana, L., Berk, M., & Mohebbi, M. (2018). Depression and chronic diseases: Co-occurrence and communality of risk factors. Journal of Affective Disorders, 241(1), 461–468.

Lu, L., & Gilmour, R. (2004). Culture and conceptions of happiness: individual oriented and social oriented swb. Journal of Happiness Studies, 5(3), 269–291.

Mastuti, D. A., & Sulandari, S. (2016). Kebahagiaan lansia ditinjau dari dukungan keluarga [Older people happiness based on family support]. Skripsi. Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta.

Mayasari, R. (2014). Religiusitas islam dan kebahagiaan (sebuah telaah dengan perspektif psikologi) [Islamic religiosity and happiness (a study with a psychological perspective)]. Al-Munzir, 7(2).

Moeini, B., Barati, M., Farhadian, M., & Ara, M. H. (2018). The Association between social support and happiness among elderly in Iran. Korean Journal of Family Medicine, 39(4), 260–265.

Nemati, S., & Maralani, F. M. (2016). The relationship between life satisfaction and happiness: The mediating role of resiliency. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 8(3), 194.

Nuryanti, T., Indarwati, R., & Hadisuyatmana, S. (2019). Hubungan perubahan peran diri dengan tingkat depresi pada lansia yang tinggal di Upt Pslu Pasuruan Babat Lamongan [The relationship of changes in self-role with the level of depression in the older people who live in Upt Pslu Pasuruan Babat Lamongan]. Indonesian Journal of Community Health Nursing, 1(1), 1–7.

Paramitha, T., & Puspitasari, R. (2016, May 27). 2050, Lansia Indonesia diperkirakan 80 juta jiwa [Older people Indonesians estimated at 80 million] . Retrieved from

Parasari, G. A. T., & Lestari, M. I. (2015). Hubungan dukungan sosial keluarga dengan tingkat depresi pada lansia di Kelurahan Sading [ Relationship of family social support with the level of depression in the older people in Kelurahan Sading] . Journal of Psikologi Udayana, 2(1), 68–77. Retrieved from

Pertiwi, R. (2017). Kebahagiaan pada lanjut usia ditunjau dari keterlibatan dalam aktivitas sehari-hari [Happiness in the older people is shown by involvement in daily activities] .Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta.

Pool, M. K., Sadeghi, R., Majlessi, F., & Foroushani, A. . R. (2014). Effects of physical exercise programme on happiness. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 22(1), 1–11.

Prince, M. J., Wu, F., Guo, Y., Gutierrez Robledo, L. M., O’Donnell, M., Sullivan, R., & Yusuf, S. (2014). The burden of disease in older people and implications for health policy and practice. The Lancet, 385(9967), 549–562.

Indonesian Ministry of Health Data and Information Center [Kemenkes]. (2013). Gambaran kesehatan lanjut usia di Indonesia [Overview of older people health in Indonesia]. file:///C:/Users/hp/Downloads/buletin-lansia.pdf

Putri, E. W. (2018). Konsep kebahagiaan dalam perspektif Al-Farabi [The concept of happiness in the perspective of Al-Farabi] . Thaqafiyyat:Jurnal Bahasa, Peradaban Dan Informasi Islam, 19(1), 95–111.

Rey, L., Extremera, N., & Sanchez-Alvarez, N. (2019). Clarifying the links between perceived emotional intelligence and well-being in older people: Pathways through perceived social support from family and friends. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 14(1), 221–235.

Richards, J., Jiang, X., Kelly, P., Chau, J., Bauman, A., & Ding, D. (2015). Don’t worry, be happy: cross-sectional associations between physical activity and happiness in 15 European countries. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 53.

Basic Health Research [Riskesdas]. (2018). Prevalensi Penyakit Tidak Menular Meningkat [The prevalence of non-communicable diseases is increasing].

Riyanto, W. B. (2014). Beberapa kondisi fisik dan penyakit yang merupakan faktor resiko gangguan fungsi kognitif [Several physical conditions and diseases are risk factors for cognitive dysfunction] . Cermin Dunia Kedokteran-212, 41(1).

Sander, W. (2017). Religion, Religiosity, and Happiness. Review of religious research, 59(2), 251–262.

Santrock, J. W. (Ed). (2012). Life-span development. Jakarta: PT. Gelora Aksara Pratama.

Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: The Free Press.

Selingman, M. (2013). Beyond authentic hapiness: Menciptakan kebahagiaan sempurna dengan psikologi positif [Creating perfect happiness with positive psychology] . Bandung: PT Mizan Pustaka.

Shishido, K., & Sasaki, T. (2020). Happiness in Japan: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis based on JGSS cumulative data 2000–2015. In Quakity of life in Japan Contemporary Persectives on Happiness (pp. 15–45).

Siqueira, J., Fernandes, N. M., & Moreira-Almeida, A. (2019). Association between religiosity and happiness in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia : ’orgao Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia, 41(1), 22–28.

Soraki, N., & Abolghasemi, S. (2016). Relationship between happiness and health with a life expectancy of cancer patients. Journal of Current Research in Science, 2, 403.

Souza, lLidia N. N. DE, Carvalho, P. H. B. De, & Ferreira, Ma. E. C. (2018). Quality of life and subjective well-being of physically active elderly people: A systematic review. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 18(3), 1615–1623.

Steptoe, A., Deaton, A., & Stone, A. A. (2014). Subjective wellbeing, health,and ageing. The Lancet, 6736(13), 1–9.

Suardiman, S. P. (2011). Psikologi lanjut usia [Pychology of older people] . Yogjakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Sujarwoto, S., Tampubolon, G., & Pierewan, A. C. (2018). Individual and contextual factors of happiness and life satisfaction in a low middle income country. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 13(4), 927–945.

Sulandari, S., Wijayanti, M., & Sari, R. D. P. (2017). Religious activity: an alternative to achieve happiness in later life. Journal Of Education and Social Sciences, 6(2), 55–64. Retrieved from

Taylor, D. (2014). Physical activity is medicine for older adults. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 90(1059), 26–32.

Valois, R. F., Zullig, K. J., Huebner, E. S., & Drane, J. W. (2004). Physical activity behaviors and perceived life satisfaction among public high school adolescents. Journal of School Health, 74(2), 59–65.

Vishkin, A., Bigman, Y., & Tamir, M. (2014). Religion, emotion regulation, and well-being. In Religion and Spirituality across cultures (pp. 247–269).

World Health Organization [WHO]. (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved from

World Health Organization [WHO]. (2011). Noncommunicable diseases country profile 2011.

World Health Organization [WHO]. (2018). Ageing and health. Retrieved from file:///G:/lansia/lansia/lansia/Ageing and health.html

You, S., & Lim, S. A. (2018). Religious orientation and subjective well-being: The mediating role of meaning in life. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 47(1), 34–47.

Zhao, Y., & Wu, L. (2018). Your health, my happiness: Optimism and socioeconomic status as moderators between spousal health and life satisfaction among the olderly. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 06(12), 127–141.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2020 Santi SULANDARI, Afrilin Dewi PURNAMA, Mei WIJAYANTI, Fitriana Dwi HASTUTI, Permata Ashfi RAIHANA