Development, Africa, Cooperation, Support, Unity, Governance, Resources, Politics.

How to Cite



When Africa emerged from the chains of colonialism, there was great hope for post-colonial African leaders to consolidate the spirit of Pan-Africanism and use Africa's vast resources to spur inclusive socioeconomic development. The Organization of African Unity also supported this vision, as did the Lagos Plan of Action and the New Partnership for Africa's Development. Great emphasis was placed on continental integration and African unity. However, post-colonialism, Africa has been engulfed by never conflict, fragmentation of governance, political instability, and unstable relations between African countries, thus defeating the need for unity and collective development. The African Union Agenda 2063 is Africa's blueprint for achieving inclusive and sustainable socioeconomic development. It seeks to ensure, amongst others, peace and economic and political stability. However, there have been questions about whether the AU can achieve this. This doubt has been driven by the plethora of socioeconomic and political problems currently consuming Africa. This paper reviews current literature to examine the practicality of AU agenda 2063. It seeks to understand whether this agenda can be a possibility or just another plan with little if no substance. The following question will guide this paper: to what extent can the AU's agenda 2063 become realizable, considering the current socioeconomic and political challenges engulfing Africa?


Abuki, B. J. (2014). The role of records management in public service delivery in county governments in Kenya: A case study of KISII county government headquarters University of Nairobi. Available at:

Addaney, M. (2018). The African union’s agenda 2063: education and its realization. In Education Law, strategic policy and sustainable development in Africa (pp. 181-197). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

Ademola, A. A. (2022). real deal or an unworkable framework? Agenda 2063, SDG Goals and the Challenges of Development in 21st Century Africa. Available at:

Adepoju, A. (2002). Fostering free movement of persons in West Africa: Achievements, constraints, and prospects for intraregional migration. International migration, 40(2), 3-28.

Africa Union. (2022). Goals & Priority Areas of Agenda 2063.

African Development Bank. (2018). Africa’s Infrastructure: Great Potential but Little Impact On Inclusive Growth. Available at:

African Union Commission. (2020). African Integration Report. Available at:

Amnesty International. (2021). Africa Regional Overview. Available at:

Anyanwu, J. C., Kayizzi-mugerwa, S., & John, C. (2013). Determining the correlates of poverty for inclusive growth in Africa. Tunisia: African Development Bank.

Austin, G. (2010). African economic development and colonial legacies (No. 1, pp. 11-32). Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement.

Babić, D. (2020). Challenges and achievements of integration processes in Africa in light of the new continental free trade agreement. The Review of International Affairs, 71, 77-92.

Benson, E.A. (2021). Ghana, Nigeria and Ivory Coast top list of countries with highest public debt stocks in West Africa. Available at:

Brautigam, D., Farole, T., & Xiaoyang, T. (2010). China’s investment in African special economic zones: Prospects, challenges, and opportunities. Available at:

Chigonda, T., & Chazireni, E. (2018). Water supply and Sanitation in Zimbabwe’s Resettlement areas: A case study approach. European Journal of Social Sciences Studies., 2(11), 139-150

Chikowore, A. (2021). The Role of Official Development Assistance in Realizing Agenda 2063. African Forum and Network on Debt and Development (AFRODAD). Zimbwabwe

Clausen, L. (2015). Taking on the Challenges of Health Care in Africa. Available at:

Collier, P., & Gunning, J. W. (1999). Why has Africa grown slowly? Journal of economic perspectives, 13(3), 3-22.

Coulibaly, S. (2020). Two lessons from ASEAN for regional integration in Africa. Available at:

Diatta, M., Woldemichael, S., Handy, P. S., & Hoinathy, R. (2021). Poor governance in Africa hampers progress. ISS Peace and Security Council Report, 2021(34), 8-10.

Dovi, E. (2018). Infrastructure key to intra-African trade. Available at:

Evans, D. K., & Mendez Acosta, A. (2021). Education in Africa: What are we learning? Journal of African Economies, 30(1), 13-54.

Fagbadebo, O. (2019). Corruption and the challenge of accountability in the post-colonial African states: A discourse. Journal of African Union Studies. 8(1), 9-32

Fofack, H. (2020). Making the AfCFTA Work for ‘The Africa We Want. Brookings Africa Growth Initiative Working Paper, Brookings Institution. Available at:

Fye, A. (2015). Democratic governance in Africa: myth or reality? American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 14(1), 28-45.

Hirsch, A., & Lopes, C. (2020). Post-colonial African economic development in historical perspective. Africa Development/Afrique et Développement, 45(1), 31-46.

Ishikawa, K. (2021). The ASEAN Economic Community and ASEAN economic integration. Journal of Contemporary East Asia Studies, 10(1), 24-41.

Jone, C. (2021). Corruption is crippling Africa, ‘more like sand than oil in the economic engine. Available at:

Kaledzi, I. (2022). Why the right to education remains a challenge in Africa? Available at:

Kalonda, J., & Govender, K. (2021). Factors Affecting Municipal Service Delivery: A Case Study of Katima Mulilo Town Council, Namibia. African Journal of Public Affairs, 12(2), 1-26.

Khadiagala, G. M. (2018). Regional cooperation on democratization and conflict management in Africa (pp. 1-2). Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Kimaro, J. R., & Fourie, D. (2017). Moving towards sustainable development goals and Agenda 2063-ethical considerations for public service M&E practitioners. African Journal of Public Affairs, 9(6), 1-11.

Lakmeeharan, K, Manji, Q Nyairo, R and Poeltne, H. (2020). Solving Africa’s infrastructure paradox. Available at:

Leshoele, M. (2019). Regional integration prospects, challenges and opportunities in Africa: A case of the tripartite free trade area. Springer. Berlin

McGowan, P. J. (2003). African military coups d'état, 1956–2001: frequency, trends and distribution. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 41(3), 339-370.

Mlambo, D. N. (2020). The quest for post-colonial regional integration: examining the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in Southern Africa post-1992. Journal of African Foreign Affairs, 7(1), 23-48.

Mlambo, D. N., Mubecua, M. A., Mpanza, S. E., & Mlambo, V. H. (2019). Corruption and its implications for development and good governance: A perspective from post-colonial Africa. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 11(1 (J)), 39-47.

Mlambo, V. H., & Mlambo, D. N. (2018). Challenges impeding regional integration in Southern Africa. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 10(2 (J)), 250-261.

Mlambo, V. H., Thusi, X., Zubane, S., & Mlambo, D. N. (2022). The African Continental Free Trade Area: Challenges and Possible Successes. Latin American Journal of Trade Policy, 5(12), 75-106.

Monyae, L. (2020, July 20). Incorporating Africa’s youth into the AU and UN developmental goals. Available at:

Morsy, H., Salami, A., & Mukasa, A. N. (2021). Opportunities amid COVID-19: Advancing intra-African food integration. World Development, 139, 105308.

Mulhern, O. (2020). Climate Change and Conflict in Africa. Available at:,in%20the%20civil%20war's%20outbreak.

Musau, Z. (March, 2018). Africa grapples with huge disparities in education. Available at:,still%20remain%20out%20of%20school.

Nagar, D., & Nganje, F. (2016). The AU and Africa’s Regional Economic Communities. In The African Union: Regional and Global Challenges Centre for Conflict Resolution. (Pp. 26–29). Available at: Http://Www.Jstor.Org/Stable/Resrep05178.10

Nathan, L. (2010). The African Union and regional organizations in Africa: communities of insecurity. African Security Review, 19(2), 106-113.

Ndoricimpa, A. (2020). Threshold effects of public debt on economic growth in Africa: a new evidence. Journal of Economics and Development, pp. 187-207.

Nwebo, O. E. (2018). The African Union agenda 2063 and the imperative of democratic governance. Law and Development Review, 11(2), 259-276.

Odaro, E. D. (2012). Causes of poor service delivery in Africa and their impact on development. Consilience (7), 34-45.

Ofori, S. A., Cobbina, S. J., & Obiri, S. (2021). Climate change, land, water, and food security: perspectives from sub-Saharan Africa. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 5, 680924.

Oleribe, O. O., Momoh, J., Uzochukwu, B. S., Mbofana, F., Adebiyi, A., Barbera, T and Taylor-Robinson, S. D. (2019). Identifying key challenges facing healthcare systems in Africa and potential solutions. International journal of general medicine, 12, 395.

Oliveira, G. Z. D., & Otavio, A. (2021). Africa’s Strategies of Development and International Insertion: The Hybridity of Agenda 2063. Contexto Internacional, (43), 331-353.

Osano, P. (2022). Climate change amplifies the risks for violent conflicts in Africa. Available at:,security%2Ddevelopment%20nexus%20for%20Africa%20.

Owusu-Nantwi, V., & Owusu-Nantwi, G. (2021). Public debt, corruption and shadow economy in Africa: an empirical analysis. Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences. Available at:

Parashar, S., & Schulz, M. (2021). Colonial legacies, postcolonial ‘selfhood ‘and the (un) doing of Africa. Third World Quarterly, 42(5), 867-881.

Pasara, M. T. (2020). An overview of the obstacles to the African economic integration process in view of the African continental free trade area. Africa Review, 12(1), 1-17.

Pius Yanda, P., & Bronkhorst, S. (2011). Climate change and conflict: Conflict-sensitive climate change adaptation in Africa. Available at:

Rocca, C., & Schultes, I. (2020). Africa's Youth: Action Needed Now to Support the Continent's Greatest Asset. Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Available at:

Rukato, H. (2017). Inclusive Development in Africa Transformation of Global Relations Vusi Gumede (Ed). Africa Insight, 47(3), 163-166.

Sachs, J. D., & Warner, A. M. (1997). Sources of slow growth in African economies. Journal of African economies, 6(3), 335-376.

Schoch, M and Lakner, C. (2020). The number of poor people continues to rise in Sub-Saharan Africa, despite a slow decline in the poverty rate. Available at:,of%20poor%20continues%20to%20rise.

Smith, T. (2020). Factors impacting the development of Africa’s infrastructure. Available at:

Soko, B. (2022). Debt management and governance in Africa. Available at:

Somervill, P. (2011). Thematic Review: Democracy and participation. Policy & Politics, 39(3), 417-437.

Tella, O. (2013). Corruption and economic development: Africa and East Asia in comparative perspective. Ubuntu: Journal of Conflict and Social Transformation, 2(1_2), 47-67.

The Economist Intelligence Unit. (2019). Democracy Index 2019 A year of democratic setbacks and popular protest. Available at:

The World Bank. (2010). Africa’s Infrastructure a Time for Transformation. Available at:

Thusi, X., Malambo, V., & Adetibah, T. (2022). The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement (AfCFTA): Possible benefits for women and youth in Africa. Latin American Journal of Trade Policy, 5(13).

Transparency International. (2019). Citizens Speak Out About Corruption in Africa. Available at:

Tshiyoyo, M. (2017). Assessing the Catalytic Role of the African Charter and the African Peer Review Mechanism in the Realization of the Objectives set out in Africa Agenda 2063 and the SDGs. African Journal of Public Affairs, 9(8), 172-185.

Viswanathan, H. H. S. (2018). Africa’s ‘Agenda 2063’: A Document of Hope. Available at:'Agenda%202063'%20aims%20to%20create,by%20the%20African%20people%20themselves.

World Economic Forum. (2022). Growing Intra-African Trade through Digital Transformation of Border and Customs Services: Regional Action Group for Africa. Available at:,reforms%20and%20trade%20facilitation%20measures

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Victor H MLAMBO, Xolani THUSI, Sbonelo GIFT NDLOVUAND


Download data is not yet available.